Monday, April 6, 2020

Guide to the Valkyries

I know, it's been a while, but I suddenly find myself with a lot more free time right now....


Anyway, my husband asked in passing earlier if the Valkyries of Norse mythology had individual names [before you go thinking we're cultured intellectuals or something, the context was.....watching the MCU :p ], and I realized that I had no idea!
Turns out: yes they did, and while some are familiar Nordic names, most are not.

Enjoy this Scandi-themed jump back into my name blog. ;)

  • Brynhildr (BRUN ['u' like in German "über"] -hildr)--"armor-battle". Most common modern form is Brynhild (BREEN-hil, BREEN-hild).
  • Eir (AYR)--"help, mercy". Modern form is Eira (AY-rah). [some sources have Eir as a Valkyrie; others as a separate goddess of healing]
  • Geirahǫð (GAY-rah-hoth ['th' like in "the"])--"spear-battle"
  • Geiravǫr (GAY-rah-vahr)--"spear-defender" or "spear-woman"
  • Geirdriful (GAYR-dree-vool)--"spear-flinger"
  • Geirskǫgul (GAYR-skog-ool)--"spear-battle" or "spear-shaker"
  • Geirǫlul (GAY-rah-lool)--poss. "spear-luck"
  • Geirǫnul (GAY-rah-nool)--unknown, "spear" + ?
  • Guðr (GOOTHr ['th' like in "the"])--"battle". Also called Gunnr (GOONr). Modern form is Gun/Gunn (GOON, 'oo' like in "foot"). 
  • Gǫll (GAHL)--"noise, tumult"
  • Gǫndul (GAHN-dool)--"magic" or "magical creature"
  • Herfjǫtur (HEHRV-yah-toor)--"army-fetter"
  • Herja (HEHR-yah)--"devastate"
  • Hervǫr (HEHR-vahr)--"army defender" or "army-woman". Modern forms are Hervor (HEHR-vohr, Swedish) and Hervör (HEHR-vur, Icelandic). 
  • Hildr (HEEL-dr)--"battle". Most common modern form is Hilda/Hilde
  • Hjalmþrimul (HYAHLM-threem ['th' like in "the"] -ool)--"helmet-battle"
  • Hjǫrþrimul (HYAHR-threem ['th' like in "the"] -ool)--"sword-battle"
  • Hlaðgunnr (HLATH ['th' like in "the"] -goonr)--"weaving battle". Also called Hlaðguðr (HLATH-goothr [both 'th' like in "the"]). 
  • Hlǫkk (HLAHK)--"noise". Moden Icelandic form is Hlökk (HLUK). 
  • Hrist (HREEST)--"shake"
  • Hrund (HROOND)--poss. "push". Modern Icelandic form is Hrund (HROONT ['oo' like in "foot"]). 
  • Kára (KAH-rah)--"curly" or poss. "obstinate". Most common modern form is Kara (KAH-rah). 
  • Mist (MEEST)--"mist, cloud". Modern form is still Mist. :) [don't you love the easy ones?]
  • Ráðgríðr (RAHTH-greethr [both 'th' like in "the"])--"counsel-eagerness" [fig. "bossy"] or "counsel-peace"
  • Randgríðr (RAHND-greethr ['th' like in "the"])--"shield-eagerness" or "shield-peace"
  • Reginleif (REG-een-layf)--"might-heir"
  • Róta (ROH-tah)--poss. "storm" or "make messy"
  • Sangríðr (SAHN-greethr ['th' like in "the"])--"true eagerness" or "true peace". Modern Swedish form is Sangrid (SAHN-grid). 
  • Sigrdríf (SEEGr-dreef)--"victory-drive". Modern Icelandic form is Sigurdrif (SIG-ur-dreef). 
  • Sigrún (SEEG-roon)--"victory-secret". Most common modern forms are Sigrún (SIG-roon, Icelandic) and Sigrun (SEEG-roon ['oo' like in "foot"], Norwegian, Swedish, Danish). 
  • Skaga (SKAH-gah)--"promontory, cape". Modern [masculine] Norwegian form is Skage (SKAH-geh).
  • Skalmǫld (SKAHL-mahld)--"sword-time"
  • Skeggjǫld (SKEG-gyahld)--"battleaxe-time"
  • Skuld (SKOOLD)--"blame" or "future". Modern Icelandic form is Skuld (SKOOLT ['oo' like in "foot"]). [also a name of one of the Norns (Fates)]
  • Skǫgul (SKAHG-ool)--"battle" or "shaker"
  • Svafa (SVAH-vah)--"Swabian". Modern forms are Svava (SVAH-vah, Norwegian, Swedish, Icelandic, Danish) and Svafa (SVAH-vah, Icelandic). 
  • Svanhvít (SVAHN-hveet)--"white swan". Modern Icelandic form is Svanhvít (SVAHN-kveet). 
  • Sveið (SVAYTH ['th' like in "the"])--poss. "noise, vibration"
  • Svipul (SVEE-pool)--"changeable"
  • Tanngniðr (TAHNG-neethr ['th' like in "the"])--"tooth-grinder"
  • Ǫlrún (AHL-roon)--"luck-secret". Modern forms are Åro (AWR [not quite like the English 'aw', but partway between English 'aw' and 'oh' sounds] -oh, Norwegian) and Ölrún (UL-roon, Icelandic).
  • Þrima (THREE ['th' like in "three"] -mah)--"fight"
  • Þrúðr (THROO-thr [first 'th' like in "three", second like in "the"])--"strength". Most common modern form is Trude (TROO-deh). [also, same root as English Trudy :) ]
  • Þǫgn (THAHGn ['th' like in "three")--"silence"

Thursday, June 6, 2019

Addendum: Puerto Rican Names

I was perusing the state/territory data, and realized that I'd left out one region: Puerto Rico. It doesn't fit easily into any previous category, but since it's more populous than 20 or so states, it seemed remiss for me not to include it. :)
[the remaining US territories are lumped into one data file since their population is collectively smaller than the least populous state, Wyoming]

First off, here's the PR Top 10, compared to the national Top 10:


Puerto Rico
National
1.
Sebastian
Liam
2.
Dylan
Noah
3.
Ian
William
4.
Mateo
James
5.
Adrian
Oliver
6.
Liam
Benjamin
7.
Lucas
Elijah
8.
Matias
Lucas
9.
Thiago
Mason
10.
Jayden
Logan


Puerto Rico
National
1.
Valentina
Emma
2.
Victoria
Olivia
3.
Emma
Ava
4.
Mia
Isabella
5.
Isabella
Sophia
6.
Mikaela
Charlotte
7.
Amaia
Mia
8.
Camila
Amelia
9.
Amanda
Harper
10.
Kamila
Evelyn


Here are the top 10 names disproportionately common in Puerto Rico compared to the rest of the country:

Boys:
  1. Yandriel
  2. Kendriel
  3. Kenay
  4. Keniel
  5. Keyden
  6. Jeriel
  7. Neithan
  8. Jeyden
  9. Neythan
  10. Mauro

Girls:
  1. Keilianys
  2. Joelys
  3. Amahia
  4. Nahiara
  5. Alianys
  6. Elianys
  7. Alanys
  8. Nahia
  9. Naiara
  10. Alahia
Quite a departure from most state lists! Obviously Puerto Rican has a lot more Spanish influence than most regions in the US. Some of these are Hispanicizations of common American English names (Keyden for Kayden; Neithan/Neythan for Nathan). -Lys is a common elaboration/feminization in Latin American Spanish, like -lyn or -anna in Am. Eng.  Likewise, -iel names for boys, both Biblical and invented, parallel Am. Eng.'s -dens and -sons.

If you want to see all the data on Puerto Rico, it is, as always, here, on Google Sheets. :)

Interestingly, many popular names from the rest of the US don't appear in Puerto Rico at all (meaning they were given at most to 4 babies there last year)--Ava, Harper, Evelyn, Ella, Avery, Madison; Mason, Henry, Jackson, Carter--and that's just from the SSA Top 25!

Wednesday, June 5, 2019

New England Names

Yeah, I never did get around to doing this last year......oops. Last but not least are the New England names (CT, DC, DE, MA, MD, ME, NH, NJ, NY, PA, RI, VT).
I've finally done the whole US now, though, so maybe it's time to start over. :p
[previous lists: Southern Names, "Surfer" Names, "Cowboy" Names, Midwestern Names]

Here are the most "New England" names (by % of babies given that name) in the New England states' Top 1000:

Boys:
  • Lipa
  • Hershy
  • Yitzchok
  • Yakov
  • Shaya
  • Mordechai
  • Shimon
  • Yisroel
  • Yehuda
  • Chaim
  • Moshe
  • Yaakov
  • Shlomo
  • Ahron
  • Avrohom
  • Tzvi
  • Shmuel
  • Nosson
  • Efraim
  • Simcha


Girls:
  • Faigy
  • Malky
  • Yitty
  • Shaindy
  • Sury
  • Malka
  • Faiga
  • Baila
  • Rochel
  • Rivka
  • Toby
  • Yehudis
  • Chana
  • Nechama
  • Chava
  • Goldy
  • Raizy
  • Batsheva
  • Pessy
  • Bracha

If we needed more proof that Jewish descent is strongest in the Northeast, I think we've found it!
To clarify, Lipa, the "most New England" boys' name, is about 7x more common in New England than in the US in general.
These are all still pretty uncommon, though; Faigy, the "most New England" girls name, was given to just 122 girls last year....all in New York and New Jersey! So, here are the names most disproportionately common in New England, from the states' Top 500:

Boys:
  • Yitzchok
  • Yakov
  • Mordechai
  • Shimon
  • Yisroel
  • Yehuda
  • Chaim
  • Moshe
  • Yaakov
  • Shlomo
  • Tzvi
  • Shmuel
  • Dovid
  • Dov
  • Meir
  • Yosef
  • Avraham
  • Menachem
  • Zev
  • Eliezer

Girls:
  • Faigy
  • Malka
  • Baila
  • Rivka
  • Chana
  • Nechama
  • Chaya
  • Gitty
  • Devorah
  • Giuliana
  • Giavanna
  • Miriam
  • Esther
  • Maeve
  • Francesca
  • Amalia
  • Milan
  • Rachel
  • Vienna
  • Giovanna

Still quite traditionally Jewish on the boys' list, but starting to get some other origins for the girls'! Regional differences are much more apparent on this list than previous ones, that's for sure. 

Finally, on to the most common names! Here are the "most New England" names from the states' combined Top 100:

Boys:
  • Nicholas
  • Luca
  • Ryan
  • Cole
  • Chase
  • Joseph
  • Zachary
  • Tyler
  • Dylan
  • Justin
  • Michael
  • Maxwell
  • Cameron
  • Gavin
  • Connor
  • Jack
  • Brayden
  • Jacob
  • Matthew
  • Anthony

Girls:
  • Esther
  • Rachel
  • Gabriella
  • Sarah
  • Gianna
  • Mackenzie
  • Julia
  • Leah
  • Valentina
  • Alexandra
  • Maya
  • Brianna
  • Hailey
  • Grace
  • Josephine
  • Riley
  • Brielle
  • Hannah
  • Emilia
  • Madison
Surprisingly classic, for the most part.

There's not much difference, but I did do it for all the other lists, so here's the New England Top 10 compared to the National Top 10.



New England
National
1.
Liam
Liam
2.
Noah
Noah
3.
Lucas
William
4.
Benjamin
James
5.
Michael
Oliver
6.
Logan
Benjamin
7.
Jacob
Elijah
8.
James
Lucas
9.
Mason
Mason
10.
Ethan
Logan


New England
National
1.
Emma
Emma
2.
Olivia
Olivia
3.
Isabella
Ava
4.
Sophia
Isabella
5.
Ava
Sophia
6.
Charlotte
Charlotte
7.
Mia
Mia
8.
Amelia
Amelia
9.
Abigail
Harper
10.
Emily
Evelyn

The entire New England Top 1000 is up here, on Google Sheets

Now for my favorite part: the most representative names of each individual state. These are the names that are most disproportionately common in that state compared to the country as a whole (using only the top 40% of each state's data, because rare names can make calculations....messy).

CT: Brendan, Rocco, Nico, Julius, Colin (boys); Siena, Maeve, Gabriella, Gianna, Juliette (girls)

DC: Nasir, George, Amari, Oscar, Edward (boys); Noa, Frances, Reign, Virginia, Amira (girls)

DE: Paul, Carson, Tristan, Brayden, Karter (boys); Briella, Myla, Callie, Noelle, Jayla (girls)

MA: Davi, Jad, Avi, Jadiel, Lucca (boys); Shea, Maeve, Theresa, Bridget, Siena (girls)

MD: Kamari, Damari, Jefferson, Nasir, Trent (boys); Milan, Tori, Sevyn, Zora, Angie (girls)

ME: Brady, Reid, Odin, Ryker, Riley (boys); Maeve, Piper, Madilyn, Fiona, Quinn (girls)

NH: Rory, Wesley, Cole, Rowan, Weston (boys); Maeve, Keira, Eloise, Juniper, Gemma (girls)

NJ: Yechezkel, Binyomin, Nosson, Avrohom, Shmuel (boys); Tzipora, Rochel, Yehudis, Batsheva, Nechama (girls)

NY: Zalmen, Mielech, Hershy, Lipa, Benzion (boys); Yides, Perl, Rifky, Trany, Shaindy (girls)

PA: Mervin, Mahlon, Ervin, Elam, Elmer (boys); Malinda, Fannie, Martha, Carmella, Vienna (girls)

RI: Lorenzo, Luca, Brayden, Cole, Roman (boys); Maeve, Jazlyn, Adriana, Juliana, Julianna (girls)

VT: Jayden, Thomas, Aiden, Weston, Blake (boys); Vera, Eloise, Genevieve, Adeline, Nora (girls)

That's right, Maeve appears 5 times. Why does upper New England like it so much--just the pure Irish-ness, or local namesake?
Other than that, the states are amazingly distinct. Pennsylvania is full of tiny old men; Vermont and New Hampshire upperclass hipsters. DC, Rhode Island, and Maryland are all over the place (although at least part of that is probably due to sample size).

If you want to see beyond the top 5 for each state, the lists are up here, on Google Sheets (same link as above; different sheet).

So, with such diverse styles, is it possible to tell what sort of names are "least New England"? Turns, out, yes--Spanish names for both genders, especially recently-coined and trendy ones for girls (Rey, Adán, Vicente; Itzayana, Daleyza, Frida), as well as surnames for both genders, again, particularly the "creative" (Kyson, Kohen, Braylon; Haisley, Oaklynn, Emerie).